Beaumont SaaS Tools

Description

Title
Category
Name
Description
Organization
Region
Contact Info
URL
Funding Source
Sustainability Score - Health & Hygiene
Sustainability Score - Environment & Natural Resources
Sustainability Score - Technology & Operation
Sustainability Score - Socio-cultural and Institutional Aspects
Sustainability Score - Financial & Economic Issues
Total Points
Sustainability Score
Status
Notes
1
Ecological Urinal
The Ecological Urinal was created as a solution for places like Uganda's capital, Kampala, where on average, 1,000 people have to share the same toilet. The make-shift urinal is an adaptable funnel that connects to locally available jerrycans. It collects urine, stores it in a sanitary way, and turns it into a high-quality fertilizer. It costs only $3
Design without Borders
Available
1
Piet Urine Diversion Toilet
No mix toilet the keeps urine and feces separate
Typish Theo
http://typischtheo.nl
Concept
1
Sabine Schober Toilet
The Sabine Schober toilet uses the Terra Preta Sanitation technology, which treats pee and poo by mixing it with charcoal to produce highly fertile soil for reforestation. It is also unique because it can be used in both the sitting and the squatting position. The toilet can be built using three robust components made of sanitary ceramic on the outside and a plastic container on the inside that collects pee and poo for only about $70.
Concept
1
Separett Privy Kit
The Separett Privy is a urine-separation kit that easily can be fitted in an existing outdoor toilet. Urine and solids are kept separate land the urine is routed via a hose to a soakaway or tank
Separate
https://www.separett.com/en-gb/our-products/accessories/toilet-seats/privy-500
Available
1
Open Defecation
The ground is the interface. Practiced by over one billion people in high-resource and low-resource settings. Access to toilets is not a guaranteed panacea.
-
-
-
-
-
0
0
2
0
2
21%
Available
-
1
Cistern Flush Toilet
Common flush toilet - generally relies on sewer connection or septic tank / cess pool. 

Can be used where there is sufficient water supply and means of dealing with waste water. Tech level is higher than straight drop toilets. Manufacturing and internal mechanism is complex. Viability in low for the poor and higher/high for wealthier households.
Multiple
-
-
-
-
2
1
2
4
1
53%
Available
1
Sitting or Pedestal Toilet
Self-explanatory. Can rely on gravity, pour flush, or flush for conveyance.
Multiple
-
-
-
-
2
1
1
4
3
58%
Available
1
Toilet with grinder pump
Toilet includes a pump to move waste upwards. Used in basement toilets that are below the sewer-line of a house. At a lower cost / complexity, it would be a good way to move waste to an above ground storage tank.
-
HRS
-
-
-
2
1
2
5
2
63%
Available
1
Urinal - Flush
Flush Urinals are receptacles, typically attached to a wall in a public toilet, into which men may urinate and which a water supply is used to clear the urine from the receptacle.
Multiple
-
-
-
-
2
1
2
4
3
63%
Available
1
Dry Toilet
Dry toilets operate without flush water. A dry toilet can be any of the following types of toilets: a composting toilet, urine-diverting dry toilet, arborloo, container-based toilet, bucket toilet, simple pit latrine (but not those that operate on a "pour flush" basis), incinerating toilets, or freezing toilets.
Multiple
-
-
-
-
1
3
2
4
3
68%
Available
1
ENVIVAC
Low-flush vacuum toilet.
Envirosystems
China
https://techdirectory.stepsforsanitation.org/subcomponents/enabling/6/
BMGF
2
3
1
5
2
68%
Available
1
PeePoo Bags
A single use biodegradable bag with urea, with an inner layer that unfolds to form a wide funnel to receive urine and feces
PeePoople
Kenya
http://www.peepoople.com/peepoo/start-thinking-peepoo/
2
4
3
1
3
68%
Available
1
Pour Flush Toilet
Flush toilet using water deposited in to bowl by the user.
Multiple
-
-
-
-
2
2
3
4
2
68%
Available
1
Squat Toilet
Self-explanatory. Can rely on gravity, pour flush, or flush for conveyance.
Multiple
-
-
-
-
2
1
2
4
4
68%
Available
1
Urinal - Dry
Dry Urinals are receptacles, typically attached to a wall in a public toilet, into which men may urinate and then the urine flows down a drain pipe due to gravity.
Multiple
-
-
-
-
2
2
3
2
4
68%
Available
1
Urine Diverting Flush Toilet (UDFT)
The Urine Diverting Flush Toilet (UDFT) is similar in appearance to a Cistern Flush Toilet except for the diversion in the bowl. The toilet bowl has two sections so that the urine can be separated from the feces. Both sitting and squatting models exist. Urine is collected in a drain in the front of the toilet and feces are collected in the back. The urine is collected without water, but a small amount of water is used to rinse the urine-collection bowl when the toilet is flushed. The urine flows into a storage tank for further use or processing, while the feces are flushed with water to be treated. Most likely to be used in high-resource setting in new constructions and where there is significant focus on sustainable sanitation methods. Only used in a limited number of locations in the developed world.
Multiple
-
-
https://akvopedia.org/wiki/Urine_Diverting_Flush_Toilet
-
2
2
1
4
4
68%
Available
1
Vacuum Toilet
Vacuum toilets are flush toilets that use suction for the removal of feces and urine resulting in a minimal requirement of water (0.5 to 1.5 liters). Uses a pump to create low pressure downstream of UI so that atmospheric pressure pushes the waste to storage tank. 

Used in airplanes for example.
Evac Multiple
HRS
-
2
3
1
5
2
68%
Available
1
SaTo Pan
The SaTo pan was developed by American Standard. It is a low-cost (2-5 USD per unit) toilet pan that relies on a physical shutter with a mechanical seal and water to separate the user and vault contents. When sufficient material or flush water is deposited into the pan, the mechanical shutter opens, allowing the waste to fall into the vault, then the shutter closes again. The shutter blocks the view of the vault contents, prevents odors from escaping, and keeps flying insects from contacting the waste and transmitting diseases. While the SaTo Pan does rely on water for flushing, the design is well optimized and uses only 1/2 liter of water per flush.
Lixil
https://www.sato.lixil.com
BMGF
2
2
3
5
2
74%
Available
1
Urine Diverting Dry Toilet (UDDT)
A urine-diverting dry toilet (UDDT) is a type of dry toilet with urine diversion that can be used to provide safe, affordable sanitation in a variety of contexts worldwide. Through the separate collection of feces and urine without any flush water, many advantages can be realized, such as odor-free operation and pathogen reduction by drying. Some are used in conjunction with resource recovery schemes.
Multiple
-
-
https://sswm.info/water-nutrient-cycle/water-use/hardwares/toilet-systems/urine-diverting-dry-toilet-(uddt)
-
1
4
3
2
4
74%
Available
1
save! Toilet
The latest urine-diverting toilet, known as “save!”, is based on an innovative idea from the designer Harald Gründl of the Austrian design studio EOOS. It dispenses altogether with a valve, which had always been required to date. The toilet is designed in such a way that urine drains correctly almost automatically, by the force of gravity, while most of the flushwater “overshoots” and enters the sewer system. The innovation is the so-called urine trap, which conveys urine across the inner surface of the toilet bowl into a concealed outlet, working purely by surface tension. This phenomenon is known as the teapot effect
EAWAG EOOS Laufen
HRS
http://www.eoos.com/cms/?id=413
2
3
2
5
3
79%
Prototype
1
Aquatron
Urine separating toilet that relies on cyclone effect
Aquatron
Europe
http://www.aquatron.se
2
3
3
5
4
89%
Available
2
Enviro-Loo - Communal
2
Envirosan - VIP with Urine Diversion
2 Storage & Conversion Tech
Banos Mejorados Secos Design
2 Storage & Conversion Tech
BioSanGas Toilet and Biogas System
Home Biogas
2 Storage & Conversion Tech
Bristol Emergency Chemical Toilet
2 Storage & Conversion Tech
Crapper
The CRAPPER stands for Compact Rotating Aerobic Pollution Prevention Excreta Reducer. It is a self-contained, horizontally mounted, rotatable bio-drum based compost toilet that costs about $100/unit. It maximizes aerobic degradation to dramatically reduce waste volumes and is odorless. The drum housing is designed to allow for safe, sanitary and easy access for the removal of excess compost when the chamber becomes full.
Toilets for People
2 Storage & Conversion Tech
Duraplast Septic Tank
Duraplast
Ghana
http://www.duraplastghana.com/products_single.php?id=26
2 Storage & Conversion Tech
Ecosan Pit Toilets - VIP 450, VIP 200
2 Storage & Conversion Tech
Enbiolet Toilet - Community
2 Storage & Conversion Tech
Enbiolet Toilet - Single
2 Storage & Conversion Tech
Enviro-Loo - Domestic
2 Storage & Conversion Tech
Enviro-Loo - Industrial
2 Storage & Conversion Tech
Enviro-Loo - Urinal
2 Storage & Conversion Tech
Envirosan - Double Chamber Urine Diversion
2 Storage & Conversion Tech
Envirosan - Urine Diversion with Removable Bin
2 Storage & Conversion Tech
Envirosan - VIP with Toilet
2 Storage & Conversion Tech
Eram Delight
2 Storage & Conversion Tech
Flexi Biogas Systems Model BG5
2 Storage & Conversion Tech
Flexi Biogas Systems Model BG6
2 Storage & Conversion Tech
Flexi Biogas Systems Model DBG
2 Storage & Conversion Tech
Flexigester SIB Kit
2 Storage & Conversion Tech
Flexigester V10 Kit
2 Storage & Conversion Tech
GesiShamba
2 Storage & Conversion Tech
Ghana Sustainable Aid Project Microflush Toilets
2 Storage & Conversion Tech
Green, Portable Toilet
2 Storage & Conversion Tech
Loolaboo
2 Storage & Conversion Tech
Loughborough Universities Toilet
Loughborough University
2 Storage & Conversion Tech
Lovable Loo
Container based, composting toilet
-
2 Storage & Conversion Tech
Microbial Fuel Cell Latrine
low-cost, low maintenance toilet that directly converts the potential energy contained in human waste (human excreta) into electricity, while simultaneously removing the organic matter and nutrients that can pollute ecosytems and allow pathogens to persist in water sources.
University of Massachusetts, Amherst
2 Storage & Conversion Tech
MoSan Toilet
2 Storage & Conversion Tech
Otji Toilet
2 Storage & Conversion Tech
Oxford Emergency Chemical Toilet
2 Storage & Conversion Tech
Perfect Privy
2 Storage & Conversion Tech
RTI Toilet
RTI
2 Storage & Conversion Tech
Sanivation Solutions Bucket Toilet
2 Storage & Conversion Tech
Separett Toilets
2 Storage & Conversion Tech
SimSan BucketMate Toilet
2 Storage & Conversion Tech
Sistema Biobolsa - Wastewater Treatment
2 Storage & Conversion Tech
Sun-Mar Toilet and Two-Pit System
2 Storage & Conversion Tech
TfP Space-Saver Composting Toilet (Crapper)
2 Storage & Conversion Tech
University of Toronto Smoldering Toilet
he Toronto Toilet uses a sand filled and UV-ray disinfecting chamber to process liquid waste and a smolder chamber, similar to a charcoal barbecue, to incinerate solid waste that has been flattened and dried in a roller/belt assembly. The toilet is sustainable, easy to use and one that processes waste while protecting the community from contamination. The equipment and processes are designed to be easily repaired and managed in a remote community by people with limited resources and training.
University of Toronto
2 Storage & Conversion Tech
Visa Portable Chemical Toilet
2 Storage & Conversion Tech
Anaerobic Digestion Pasteurization Latrine (household system)
The Anaerobic Digestion Pasteurization Latrine (ADPL) is a self-contained and energy neutral on-site sanitation system using anaerobic digestion of fecal sludge to generate biogas and then uses the biogas to pasteurize the digester effluent at 65–75°C to produce a safe effluent that can be reused locally as a fertilizer.
Duke University
http://sanitation.pratt.duke.edu/
0%
2 Storage & Conversion Tech
Recycling Toilet
Clear Recycling Toilet uses a double membrane treatment process that produces a high quality effluent for reuse
Clear Environmental Technology
http://www.clearet.com/pros/IqC1g.html
BMGF
0%
Available
2 Storage & Conversion Tech
Change: Waterless toilet
The toilet uses a simple membrane to rapidly evaporate 95% of sewage without using any type of energy. This innovative technology provides homes with a working toilet, without the need for power or plumbing
Change Water Labs
http://www.change-water.com/solution
1
1
0
1
1
21%
Research / Prototype
2 Storage & Conversion Tech
BioFil Digester
Biofil Digester is an affordable, on-site fecal waste treatment system that works with most toilet systems. Our product replaces existing systems at a much lower cost of $ 300 - $ 600. It requires no prior infrastructure to install. This compares very favourably with septic tanks and central sewers which require investments of thousands and hundreds of thousand respectively. In addition to the Biofil Digester, our new innovation which makes use of waste water for flushing makes it possible for people without safe sanitation to afford decent sanitation.
Biological Filters & Composters Ltd
Kweku A. Anno E: info@biofilcom.org | E: kaannoeng@yahoo.com T: +233 244 389 636
www.biofilcom.org
1
1
1
1
1
26%
2 Storage & Conversion Tech
Cess to Fit
Cess-to-Fit consists of a closed container equipped with support media for microbial growth, biogas pipe and hydraulic mixing mechanism fitted within. Only treated effluent is allowed to leach into the soil.
Asian Institute of Technology
Thailand China
1
1
1
1
1
26%
Concept
2 Storage & Conversion Tech
Solar Septic Tank
Solar energy (heat) used to accelerate biological digestion of septage
Asian Institute of Technology
http://serd.ait.ac.th/serd/
BMGF
1
1
1
1
1
26%
Prototype
2 Storage & Conversion Tech HRS
NEWgenerator
The NEWgenerator uses a multistage disinfection process. A fine-pore microscopic membrane filter traps bacteria and viruses.Clean water that passes through is then disinfected with chlorine, similar to municipal drinking water. The recycled water can be used for toilet flushing in the sanitation facilities, thereby drastically cutting down on water demand, especially during times of drought. The water can also be used for irrigation.
University of South Florida
http://news.usf.edu/article/templates/?a=8667&z=232
BMGF
0%
Pilot
2 Storage & Conversion Tech HRS
Sol-Char Toilet
The Sol-Char Toilet utilizes concentrated solar power (CSP) to convert human waste into char, an odorless product that can be used as fuel or soil-amendment.  A waterless, self-contained toilet that functions off-the-grid. Concentrated sunlight is delivered to fiber optic bundles located at the focus of parabolic concentrators illuminating the inner collection container and disinfecting the waste though conduction, convection, and radiation heat transfer. The reactor is designed to achieve high temperatures (300C to 750C) and produces a safe and useable product
University of Colorado Boulder
https://www.colorado.edu/solchar/
BMGF
1
1
0
0
0
11%
Prototype
2 Storage & Conversion Tech HRS
Blue Diversion Autarky
The Blue Diversion Autarky toilet is a sanitation system which provides hygiene and comfort without relying on water and wastewater infrastructure. Water, urine and feces are collected separately and treated on site in specific modules
EAWAG
https://www.eawag.ch/en/research/human-welfare/wastewater/projekte/autarky/
BMGF
1
1
1
0
0
16%
Prototype
2 Storage & Conversion Tech HRS
ECO-SAN Toilet
Commercialization partner of Cal-Tech. This is a very high tech toilet system.
ECO-SAN
http://www.eco-san.cn/e_main.html
BMGF
1
1
0
1
0
16%
Available
2 Storage & Conversion Tech HRS
Empower Sanitation Platform
On-site processing includes electrochemical disinfection and recycling of liquids, and drying and sterilization of solids with optional combustion.
Duke University
http://washaid.pratt.duke.edu/sites/washaid.pratt.duke.edu/files/u71/Empower.March2019.Updated.Final_.pdf
BMGF
1
1
0
1
0
16%
Prototype
2 Storage & Conversion Tech HRS
Firelight Toilet
The Firelight Toilet works by drying fecal material via boiling. The steam that is generated then undergoes a pressure and temperature increase by a compressor and is used as the heat source for the drying process. The dried biomass is then metered into a controlled fire where it is burned, creating heat to kill pathogens and boil water, which is then utilized within a steam engine Rankine cycle to generate electricity.
Sedron Technologies
https://www.sedron.com/firelight-toilet/
BMGF
1
1
0
1
0
16%
Prototype
2 Storage & Conversion Tech HRS
HTClean
Vacuum toilet with high pressure and temperature treatment of waste (hydrothermal carbonization)
Helbling
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kdL0BnwaFC4
BMGF
1
1
0
1
0
16%
Prototype
2 Storage & Conversion Tech HRS
Nanomembrane Toilet
The Nano Membrane Toilet will be able to treat human waste on-site without external energy or water. It is designed for single-household use (equivalent to 10 people) and will accept urine and faeces as a mixture. The flush uses a unique rotating mechanism without using any water whilst simultaneously blocking odour and the user’s view of the waste.
Cranfield
http://www.nanomembranetoilet.org
BMGF
1
1
0
1
0
16%
Prototype
2 Storage & Conversion Tech HRS
Scion Toilet
Vacuum pump sucks the waste away to reactor that uses wet oxidation (high heat and pressure with the addition of oxygen) to break down solids and kill bacteria and pathogens.
Scion Research
www.scionresearch.com
BMGF
1
1
0
1
0
16%
Prototype
2 Storage & Conversion Tech HRS
The Toronto Toilet
Dry-combustion Toilet
University of Toronto Sankoya
https://cgen.utoronto.ca/research-initiatives/current-projects/re-invent-the-toilet-challenge/ https://www.sankoya.com/toilet
BMGF
1
1
0
1
0
16%
Prototype
2 Storage & Conversion Tech HRS
Urinetricity Microbrial Fuel Cell
Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) fed with urine.
University of West England-Bristol
http://www.brl.ac.uk/researchthemes/bioenergyselfsustainable/urine-tricity.aspx
BMGF
1
1
0
1
0
16%
Prototype
2 Storage & Conversion Tech HRS
Caltech Electrochemical toilet
Multi-user Reinvented Toilet (MURT) that anaerobically digests mixed urine/feces followed by electrochemical oxidation of the supernatant, biological treatment, and ultrafiltration. Settled, digested solids removed 1-2x per year.
Cal Tech
http://hoffmann.caltech.edu
BMGF
1
1
1
1
0
21%
Available
2 Storage & Conversion Tech HRS
Johkasou Systems
Package onsite wastewater treatment units. These are essentially advanced septic tanks that (may) include filter media, biofilm reactors, nutrient capture, calcium hypochlorite disinfection. They typically use anaerobic and aerobic digestion.
Multiple
-
-
-
1
1
1
1
1
26%
Available
2 Storage & Conversion Tech LRS
Aqua Privys (Septic Tank)
Aqua-privy. An aqua-privy has a watertight tank immediately under the latrine floor. Excreta drop directly into the tank through a pipe. The bottom of the pipe is submerged in the liquid in the tank, forming a water seal to prevent escape of flies, mosquitos and smell. The tank functions like a septic tank.
-
2 Storage & Conversion Tech LRS
EcoLoo
Permanent, Odor-Free & Long-Term Toilets for Rural Areas to service the needs of the Underprivileged
Ecoloo Group
http://www.ecoloogroup.com/ecoloo.html
2
7
5
6
4
126%
Available
2 Storage & Conversion Tech LRS
Dutch Latrine Bag
Our Dutch Latrine Bag (DLB) offers a simple and effective solution for this pollution problem. The DLB is a large strong plastic bag placed into the pit latrine preventing human waste to pollute the groundwater table. In effect the DLB delivers the opportunity to close the sanitation cycle and re-use human waste for agricultural and biogas applications.
Aqua-Aero Watersystems BV
0
0
1
1
1
16%
Discontinued
2 Storage & Conversion Tech LRS
Earth Auger
Elevated UD toilet with integrated manually operated auger that pushes waste through a chamber where it is aerated and dried.
Critical Practices LLC
http://www.earthauger.org
BMGF
1
1
1
1
1
26%
2 Storage & Conversion Tech LRS
Low-volume Storage - Fast & Frequent Emptying
Sealed vaults for storage of urine & feces (separate / combined) with low volume (<1m^3) with no leeching. Emptied frequently. Higher volume and fixed containers but otherwise similar to Container Based Sanitation.
Beaumont
Andrew Whitesell abw@beaumontllc.com
-
-
1
1
1
1
1
26%
Concept
2 Storage & Conversion Tech LRS
UV Cured, low-volume pit liner
Epoxy impregnated liner that is inflated within pit latrine pit then UV cured to create sealed, inexpensive, storage tank
Beaumont
Andrew Whitesell abw@beaumontllc.com
-
-
1
1
1
1
1
26%
Concept
2 Storage & Conversion Tech LRS HRS
DEWATS
DEWATS is a technical approach to decentralized wastewater treatment in developing communities. The passive design uses physical and biological treatment mechanisms such as sedimentation, floatation, aerobic and anaerobic treatment to treat both domestic and industrial wastewater sources. DEWATS is designed to be affordable, low maintenance, use local materials, and meet environmental laws and regulations. DEWATS has service packages available for the sanitation needs of small and medium sized enterprises including communities, schools, municipalities, agro-industry, emergency settlements, hospitals, hotels, and prisons.
BORDA
Asia, Africa, Latin America
https://www.borda.org/solutions/decentralised-sanitation-systems-2/
0%
Available
2 Storage & Conversion Tech LRS HRS
Biogas Reactor
A biogas reactor or anaerobic digester is an anaerobic treatment technology that produces (a) a digested slurry (digestate) that can be used as a fertilizer and (b) biogas that can be used for energy. Biogas is a mix of methane, carbon dioxide and other trace gases which can be converted to heat, electricity or light.

Biogas Reactors are simple and effective. They are used globally in low to high resource settings.
-
-
-
-
1
1
1
1
1
26%
Available
2 Storage & Conversion Tech LRS HRS
LooWatt
he Loowatt is a waterless toilet system that transforms human waste into biofuel. The composting toilet is molded from 90% horse dung and features a biodegradable lining that stores excrement in a sealed, odor-free container. Once the toilet is full, the user takes the package of poo to an outdoor biodigester, which in exchange, provides a free source of biofuel for cooking.
LooWatt
1
1
1
1
1
26%
Concept
2 Toilet System HRS
Airhead Composting Toilet
Composting toilet that separates solids and liquids
Eos Design LLC
https://airheadtoilet.com
2 Toilet System HRS
Kazuba Waterless Composting Toilets
Waterless composting toilet
Kazuba
https://kazuba.eu/en/home/
2 Toilet System LRS
Easy Latrine
The Easy Latrine consists of a pan, a bucket of water with a ladle, and pipes to connect a hut to a latrine buried in the ground. The latrine itself has three receptacles made of rings of concrete bound by the ash of rice husks — material that's readily at hand and much cheaper than cement.
Engineering for Change
https://www.engineeringforchange.org
2 Toilet System LRS
Ecodomeo
Ecodomeo dry toilets seperate the liquids from the solids: The first are evacuated through the household used-water system, the second evacuated to a closed space where they are then reduced into compost by earthworms.
Ecodomeo
http://www.ecodomeo.com/english/
2 Toilet System LRS
Ecosan Waterless Toilet
A sanitation system that does not require any water to function. It is entirely isolated from the surrounding environment and cannot contaminate underground water resources. The system utilizes a natural biological process to break down human waste into a dehydrated odorless compost-like material.
http://www.ecosan.co.za
2 Toilet System LRS
Otji Dry Toilet Solutions
A perforated container as collecting device under the toilet pot separates solid from liquid. The solid stays in the container while the liquid runs through a perforated concrete panel underneath the container, from where it filtrates into the ground. After approximately six months the container is filled up with solid
Namibia
https://www.susana.org/_resources/documents/default/2-915-otji-toilet-new-2009-eu-version1.pdf
2 Toilet System LRS
SanBox
Manufactured by RFL, SanBox is an innovative, simple, easy and high quality toilet in a box. Designed by iDE-Bangladesh, SanBox’s simplicity eliminates many of the challenges around complex designs that consumers are unable to understand, install or even use. The SanBox bundles together all the components of a latrine midstructure (user interface to pit) removing concerns with household level quality control.
iDE Bangladesh RFL
Bangladesh
Banga Building Materials Ltd. Chowdhury Hasan Tariq E: coo.bbml@prangroup.com T: +88 029 881 792
www.rflbd.com
0%
2 Toilet System LRS
Banza Toilet
Banza Sanitation
https://banzasanitation.wordpress.com
1
1
1
0
1
21%
Discontinued
2 Toilet System LRS
EcoSan UDT
Ecological Sanitation is an approach to sanitation provision which aims to safely reuse excreta in agriculture. It desires to "close the loop" mainly for the nutrients and organic matter between sanitation and agriculture. One of the aims is to minimize the use of non-renewable resources. When properly designed and operated, ecosan systems provide a hygienically safe system to convert human excreta into nutrients to be returned to the soil, and water to be returned to the land.
Multiple
-
http://www.ecosanres.org/factsheets.htm
-
1
0
1
1
1
21%
Available
Not to be confused with the ECO-SAN Toilet mentioned elsewhere
2 Toilet System LRS
ArborLoo
A single pit toilet (can be VIP) that when full becomes a planting bed for a tree.

This is only viable in rural areas.
-
-
-
-
1
1
1
1
1
26%
Available
2 Toilet System LRS
S.P.U.D. Toilet
A self-contained urine-diverting unit.  The toilet is solar powered to dry and process the waste anaerobically, and composts waste to be disposed of by users. Designed at a household scale, target users are families of 4-6 people.
African Sanitation Outsourcing
South Africa
1
1
1
1
1
26%
Concept
2 Toilet System LRS
Tiger Toilet
The Tiger Toilet faecal waste solution consists of a strong and durable toilet room and the Tiger biodigester attached to it
TBF Environmental Solutions
www.tbfenvironmental.in
1
1
1
1
1
26%
Available
2 Toilet System LRS
Zyclone Cube
Integrating with a conventional flushing toilet, the Zyclone Cube is designed for efficiently separating and effectively treating both solid and liquid fractions. The unique Zyclone shape achieves liquid separation at greater than 98%. The solids fraction is dropped into a screw heating device that operates intermittently in dehumidifying and inactivating pathogenic contents. The liquid is further treated by integrated adsorptive media (e.g. modified soil and zeolite) in a series of anaerobic, aerobic, and anoxic chambers prior to a final step of electrochemical disinfection.
AIT
SCG Chemicals CO., LTD
https://www.scgchemicals.com/en/products-services/technology-service-solutions/reinvented-toilet-total-solution
BMGF
1
4
3
1
4
68%
Prototype
2 Toilet System LRS HRS
E-Toilet
Prefabricated community toilets
ERAM Scientific Solutions
https://eramscientific.com/e-toilets/
BMGF
1
1
1
1
1
26%
Available
2a Storage & Conversion Tech Types
Single Pit Latrine
-
2a Storage & Conversion Tech Types
Cesspool or Pit
A cesspit, or cesspool is a tank pit used for the temporary collection and storage of sewage or waste. The pit is sometimes lined with bricks or concrete and mostly covered with a slab. In case the pit is constructed water-tight, it needs to be emptied frequently. When the pit is not tight, liquids leached out if soil conditions allow, while solids decay and collect in the base. The treatment effect of a cesspit is very low. Emptying can result in high operation and maintenance costs. Cesspits which allow soil infiltration require less frequent emptying but groundwater pollution can occur
-
-
-
-
0
0
0
0
0
0%
Available
2a Storage & Conversion Tech Types
Fossa Alterna (double pit latrine)
The Fossa Alterna is a short cycle alternating, waterless (dry) double pit technology. Compared to the double VIP which is just designed to collect, store and partially treat excreta, the Fossa Alterna is designed to make an earth-like product that can be used as a nutrient-rich soil conditioner.
-
-
https://www.appropedia.org/Fossa_Alterna
-
0%
Available
2a Storage & Conversion Tech Types
None - direct discharge
Waste is not contained but rather sent directly to a gutter, into the environment, or into a body of water.
-
-
-
-
0
0
1
0
1
11%
Available
2a Storage & Conversion Tech Types
Composting Toilet
Composting toilets are toilet systems comprised of a superstructure, a pan or slab, and a vault or pit in which feces or excreta fall together with cleansing material (the composting chamber). Dry organic material such as sawdust is added to adjust moisture content and C/N ratio in order to obtain optimum conditions for thermophilic composting. Composting toilets can be used to treat both excreta and organic household or garden waste and to transform it into a valuable soil amendment. Composting toilets rarely work. Users misuse them and the composting chamber doesn’t get hot enough or remain hot enough for composting and treatment to occur. UD Composting toilets are better but are still problematic.
Multiple
-
-
-
0
1
1
0
1
16%
Available
2a Storage & Conversion Tech Types
Corbelled Latrine
ow-cost rural sanitation pit latrine design (corbelled latrine). The typical corbelled pit latrine consists of a 3 m-deep pit with a dome in the middle to reduce the diameter towards the top keyhole (squat hole). No cement.
Mzuzu University
Rochelle Holm
rochelle@rochelleholm.com
http://mzuniwatsan.com
0
0
1
1
1
16%
Available
2a Storage & Conversion Tech Types
Double Ventilated Improved Pit (VIP)
The double VIP has almost the same design as the single VIP with the added advantage of a second pit that allows it to be used continuously and permits safer and easier emptying
Multiple
-
-
-
0
0
1
1
1
16%
Available
2a Storage & Conversion Tech Types
Incineration Toilet
An incineration toilet burns biological waste at high temperatures, leaving only an insignificant quantity of ash amounting to the equivalent of about one teacup for four people during one week of use. Waste is burned in an enclosed incineration chamber, and combustion gases are expelled through a separate ventilation pipe.
Cinderella
Incinolet
Ecojohn
Sirius Technology
Jets
Storburn International
Dirac Inc.
KAIST
https://www.cinderellaeco.com/ch-en/articles/what-is-an-incineration-toilet/
-
1
1
0
1
0
16%
Available
2a Storage & Conversion Tech Types
Single Pit
The single pit is one of the most widely used sanitation technologies. Excreta, along with anal cleansing materials (water or solids) are deposited into a pit. Lining the pit prevents it from collapsing and provides support to the superstructure.
-
-
-
-
0
0
1
1
1
16%
Available
2a Storage & Conversion Tech Types
Twin Pits for Pour Flush
This technology consists of two alternating pits connected to a pour flush toilet. The blackwater (and in some cases greywater) is collected in the pits and allowed to slowly infiltrate into the surrounding soil. Over time, the solids are sufficiently dewatered and can be manually removed with a shovel and reused on-site, much like compost, to improve soil fertility and fertilise crops . Although most pathogens are filtered during soil infiltration or die-off with time and distance, there remains a risk of groundwater pollution, particularly in densely populated areas or in areas with a high groundwater table
-
-
-
-
1
0
1
1
1
21%
Available
2a Storage & Conversion Tech Types
Ventilated Improved Pit Latrine (VIP)
Excreta drops into an unlined pit. Ventilation and screens are designed to reduce smells and insects that might transmit waste. Waste water leaches into the soil.
-
-
-
1
0
1
1
1
21%
Available
2a Storage & Conversion Tech Types
Composting Chamber
Storage container that promotes aerobic digestion. They work better when a UD toilet is used. More complex than a VIP, often made of plastic, includes ventilation & drainage, low volume. Molded units unlikely to be used in resource poor environments.
-
-
-
-
1
1
1
1
1
26%
Available
2a Storage & Conversion Tech Types
Container
Container-based sanitation (CBS) relies on liquid-tight containers to temporarily store waste. CBS can be used with squat plates, pedestal toilets, and urinals. Often, a service provider collects the waste on a regular basis (daily, weekly, on-demand) and transports the waste to a local facility for treatment and use.
-
-
-
-
1
1
1
1
1
26%
Available
2a Storage & Conversion Tech Types
Container Based Sanitation (CBS)
Container-based sanitation (abbreviated as CBS) refers to a sanitation system where toilets collect human excreta in sealable, removable containers (also called cartridges) that are transported to treatment facilities. This type of sanitation involves a commercial service which provides toilets and delivers empty containers when picking up full ones. The service transports and safely disposes of or reuses collected excreta. This is essentially a dry, urine diverting toilet. Excreta is deposited into relatively small containers (i.e. 20L for urine and 50L for feces). The waste is collected on a daily to weekly basis by a service provider. Typically used in dense population settings.
Multiple Sanergy
www.sanergy.com
-
1
1
1
1
1
26%
Available
2a Storage & Conversion Tech Types
Dehydration Vault
Dehydration vaults are used to collect, store and dry (dehydrate) feces. Feces will only dehydrate when the vaults are well ventilated, watertight to prevent external moisture from entering, and when urine and anal cleansing water are diverted away from the vaults. Similar to UD dual VIP but relies on cover material. Also similar to Earth Auger toilet.
-
-
-
-
1
1
1
1
1
26%
Available
2a Storage & Conversion Tech Types
Septic Tank Conventional System Chamber System Drip Distribution System Aerobic Treatment Unit Mound Systems Recirculating Sand Filter System Evapotranspiration System Constructed Wetland System Cluster / Community System
A septic tank is a watertight chamber made of concrete, fibreglass, PVC or plastic, through which blackwater and greywater flows for primary treatment. Septic systems treat wastewater from household plumbing fixtures (toilet, shower, laundry, etc.) through both natural and technological processes, typically beginning with solids settling in a septic tank, and ending with wastewater treatment in the soil via the drainfield.


Multiple
-
-
-
1
1
1
1
1
26%
Available
2a Storage & Conversion Tech Types
Septic Tank - Recirculating Sand Filter System
A septic tank is a watertight chamber made of concrete, fibreglass, PVC or plastic, through which blackwater and greywater flows for primary treatment. Septic systems treat wastewater from household plumbing fixtures (toilet, shower, laundry, etc.) through both natural and technological processes, typically beginning with solids settling in a septic tank, and ending with wastewater treatment in the soil via the drainfield.


Multiple
-
-
-
1
1
1
1
1
26%
Available
2a Storage & Conversion Tech Types
Septic Tank Aerobic Treatment Unit
A septic tank is a watertight chamber made of concrete, fibreglass, PVC or plastic, through which blackwater and greywater flows for primary treatment. Septic systems treat wastewater from household plumbing fixtures (toilet, shower, laundry, etc.) through both natural and technological processes, typically beginning with solids settling in a septic tank, and ending with wastewater treatment in the soil via the drainfield.


Multiple
-
-
-
1
1
1
1
1
26%
Available
2a Storage & Conversion Tech Types
Septic Tank Aerobic Treatment UnitMound SystemsRecirculating Sand Filter SystemEvapotranspiration SystemConstructed Wetland SystemCluster / Community System
A septic tank is a watertight chamber made of concrete, fibreglass, PVC or plastic, through which blackwater and greywater flows for primary treatment. Septic systems treat wastewater from household plumbing fixtures (toilet, shower, laundry, etc.) through both natural and technological processes, typically beginning with solids settling in a septic tank, and ending with wastewater treatment in the soil via the drainfield.


Multiple
-
-
-
1
1
1
1
1
26%
Available
2a Storage & Conversion Tech Types
Septic Tank Chamber System
A septic tank is a watertight chamber made of concrete, fibreglass, PVC or plastic, through which blackwater and greywater flows for primary treatment. Septic systems treat wastewater from household plumbing fixtures (toilet, shower, laundry, etc.) through both natural and technological processes, typically beginning with solids settling in a septic tank, and ending with wastewater treatment in the soil via the drainfield.


Multiple
-
-
-
1
1
1
1
1
26%
Available
2a Storage & Conversion Tech Types
Septic Tank Chamber SystemDrip Distribution SystemAerobic Treatment UnitMound SystemsRecirculating Sand Filter SystemEvapotranspiration SystemConstructed Wetland SystemCluster / Community System
A septic tank is a watertight chamber made of concrete, fibreglass, PVC or plastic, through which blackwater and greywater flows for primary treatment. Septic systems treat wastewater from household plumbing fixtures (toilet, shower, laundry, etc.) through both natural and technological processes, typically beginning with solids settling in a septic tank, and ending with wastewater treatment in the soil via the drainfield.


Multiple
-
-
-
1
1
1
1
1
26%
Available
2a Storage & Conversion Tech Types
Septic Tank Cluster / Community System
A septic tank is a watertight chamber made of concrete, fibreglass, PVC or plastic, through which blackwater and greywater flows for primary treatment. Septic systems treat wastewater from household plumbing fixtures (toilet, shower, laundry, etc.) through both natural and technological processes, typically beginning with solids settling in a septic tank, and ending with wastewater treatment in the soil via the drainfield.


Multiple
-
-
-
1
1
1
1
1
26%
Available
2a Storage & Conversion Tech Types
Septic Tank Constructed Wetland System
A septic tank is a watertight chamber made of concrete, fibreglass, PVC or plastic, through which blackwater and greywater flows for primary treatment. Septic systems treat wastewater from household plumbing fixtures (toilet, shower, laundry, etc.) through both natural and technological processes, typically beginning with solids settling in a septic tank, and ending with wastewater treatment in the soil via the drainfield.


Multiple
-
-
-
1
1
1
1
1
26%
Available
2a Storage & Conversion Tech Types
Septic Tank Conventional System
A septic tank is a watertight chamber made of concrete, fibreglass, PVC or plastic, through which blackwater and greywater flows for primary treatment. Septic systems treat wastewater from household plumbing fixtures (toilet, shower, laundry, etc.) through both natural and technological processes, typically beginning with solids settling in a septic tank, and ending with wastewater treatment in the soil via the drainfield.


Multiple
-
-
-
1
1
1
1
1
26%
Available
2a Storage & Conversion Tech Types
Septic Tank Drip Distribution System
A septic tank is a watertight chamber made of concrete, fibreglass, PVC or plastic, through which blackwater and greywater flows for primary treatment. Septic systems treat wastewater from household plumbing fixtures (toilet, shower, laundry, etc.) through both natural and technological processes, typically beginning with solids settling in a septic tank, and ending with wastewater treatment in the soil via the drainfield.


Multiple
-
-
-
1
1
1
1
1
26%
Available
2a Storage & Conversion Tech Types
Septic Tank Drip Distribution SystemAerobic Treatment UnitMound SystemsRecirculating Sand Filter SystemEvapotranspiration SystemConstructed Wetland SystemCluster / Community System
A septic tank is a watertight chamber made of concrete, fibreglass, PVC or plastic, through which blackwater and greywater flows for primary treatment. Septic systems treat wastewater from household plumbing fixtures (toilet, shower, laundry, etc.) through both natural and technological processes, typically beginning with solids settling in a septic tank, and ending with wastewater treatment in the soil via the drainfield.


Multiple
-
-
-
1
1
1
1
1
26%
Available
2a Storage & Conversion Tech Types
Septic Tank Evapotranspiration System
A septic tank is a watertight chamber made of concrete, fibreglass, PVC or plastic, through which blackwater and greywater flows for primary treatment. Septic systems treat wastewater from household plumbing fixtures (toilet, shower, laundry, etc.) through both natural and technological processes, typically beginning with solids settling in a septic tank, and ending with wastewater treatment in the soil via the drainfield.


Multiple
-
-
-
1
1
1
1
1
26%
Available
2a Storage & Conversion Tech Types
Septic Tank Mound Systems
A septic tank is a watertight chamber made of concrete, fibreglass, PVC or plastic, through which blackwater and greywater flows for primary treatment. Septic systems treat wastewater from household plumbing fixtures (toilet, shower, laundry, etc.) through both natural and technological processes, typically beginning with solids settling in a septic tank, and ending with wastewater treatment in the soil via the drainfield.


Multiple
-
-
-
1
1
1
1
1
26%
Available
2a Storage & Conversion Tech Types
Septic Tank Mound SystemsRecirculating Sand Filter SystemEvapotranspiration SystemConstructed Wetland SystemCluster / Community System
A septic tank is a watertight chamber made of concrete, fibreglass, PVC or plastic, through which blackwater and greywater flows for primary treatment. Septic systems treat wastewater from household plumbing fixtures (toilet, shower, laundry, etc.) through both natural and technological processes, typically beginning with solids settling in a septic tank, and ending with wastewater treatment in the soil via the drainfield.


Multiple
-
-
-
1
1
1
1
1
26%
Available
2a Storage & Conversion Tech Types
Septic Tank Recirculating Sand Filter SystemEvapotranspiration SystemConstructed Wetland SystemCluster / Community System
A septic tank is a watertight chamber made of concrete, fibreglass, PVC or plastic, through which blackwater and greywater flows for primary treatment. Septic systems treat wastewater from household plumbing fixtures (toilet, shower, laundry, etc.) through both natural and technological processes, typically beginning with solids settling in a septic tank, and ending with wastewater treatment in the soil via the drainfield.


Multiple
-
-
-
1
1
1
1
1
26%
Available
2a Storage & Conversion Tech Types
Single Ventilated Improved Pit (VIP)
Improvement over conventional pit latrine. Uses vent pipe to control odors and insects.
-
-
-
-
1
1
1
1
1
26%
Available
2a Storage & Conversion Tech Types
Tank
Watertight chamber of concrete or plastic with no outflow - must be pumped
-
-
-
-
1
1
1
1
1
26%
Available
2a Storage & Conversion Tech Types
UD Black Soldier Fly Toilet
Urine diversion toilet that diverts solids into chamber where black soldier fly larvae can process the waste.
-
-
-
-
1
1
1
1
1
26%
Available
2a Storage & Conversion Tech Types
UD Vermicomposting Toilet
Urine diversion toilet that diverts solids into chamber where worms can process the waste.
-
-
-
-
1
1
1
1
1
26%
Available
3 Conveyance Tech - Extraction & Transportation LRS
Diaphragm Pump
-
3 Conveyance Tech - Extraction & Transportation LRS
Excrevator
3 Conveyance Tech - Extraction & Transportation LRS
Omni-Ingestor - AGI
AGI
Discontinued
3 Conveyance Tech - Extraction & Transportation LRS
Omni-Ingestor - DCI
DCI Engineering
Discontinued
3 Conveyance Tech - Extraction & Transportation LRS
Omni-Ingestor - Synapse
Synapse Product Development
Discontinued
3 Conveyance Tech - Extraction & Transportation LRS
Pit Screw Auger
3 Conveyance Tech - Extraction & Transportation LRS
Poo Pump
3 Conveyance Tech - Extraction & Transportation LRS
Sewer system (simplified, solids-free, conventional)
-
3 Conveyance Tech - Extraction & Transportation LRS
Sludge Digger
3 Conveyance Tech - Extraction & Transportation LRS
Mini Desludging Unit
Small trailer-based system with pump and storage tank Used in Ethiopia. Suitable for urban settlements.
WASTE
http://www.waste.nl/causes/mdu-ethiopia/
0%
Available
3 Conveyance Tech - Extraction & Transportation LRS
Manual Emptying - Jerry Can, bucket, or similar
Human waste is removed from vaults by submerging a small container into the waste, then taking the collected waste somewhere to dispose of it, often a river, lake, or less trafficked area in the community such as a ditch.
-
-
-
-
0
0
1
0
1
11%
Available
This practice is roughly equivalent to open defecation.
3 Conveyance Tech - Extraction & Transportation LRS
Excluder
Nicola Greene Nicola@triangle- environmental.com
www.triangle-environmental.com
1
1
0
1
0
16%
Pilot
3 Conveyance Tech - Extraction & Transportation LRS
Flexcevator
The Flexcrevator is a portable vacuum system coupled with a trash excluding attachment. Our unique device aspirates fecal sludge while simultaneously leaves trash in pits. By separating fecal sludge from trash during operation, we reduce the risk of jamming in the vacuum hoses. This makes the overall process of emptying more sanitary and hygienic.
North Carolina State University
https://facultyclusters.ncsu.edu/global-wash-researcher-receives-gates-foundation-grant/
1
1
0
1
0
16%
Prototype
3 Conveyance Tech - Extraction & Transportation LRS
ROM 2
Mobile desludging unit suited for mounting on lighter vehicles or trailers towed by any vehicle with a towing capacity of 1200 kg. Petrol driven vacuum pump combined with a water pressure pump and nozzles for fluidizing sludge thick sludge to facilitate pumping
ROM B.V.
http://www.rombv.com/rom-mobile-desludging-unit-3
1
1
0
1
0
16%
Available
3 Conveyance Tech - Extraction & Transportation LRS
Vacutug
Vacuum tank and a pump run by a small petrol or diesel engine
UN Habitat
http://mirror.unhabitat.org/downloads/docs/2527_1_595414.pdf
1
1
0
1
0
16%
Available
3 Conveyance Tech - Extraction & Transportation LRS
eVac
Vacuum pumping machine Powered by a 2hp motor/engine <70kg
1
1
0
1
0
16%
Concept
3 Conveyance Tech - Extraction & Transportation LRS
Gulper
0
1
1
1
1
21%
Concept
3 Conveyance Tech - Extraction & Transportation LRS
Human Powered Emptying & Transport
Waste is removed from vaults with simple mechanical devices powered by the emptiers. These devices are intended to reduce the effort spent emptying the vaults and spillage. Manual pumps are typically coupled with manual transportation of the collected waste.
-
-
-
-
1
1
1
1
1
26%
Available
3 Conveyance Tech - Extraction & Transportation LRS
P10
Manual Pump
Beaumont
Andrew Whitesell abw@beaumontllc.com
www.beaumontllc.com
BMGF
Self
1
1
1
1
1
26%
Research / Prototype
3 Conveyance Tech - Extraction & Transportation LRS HRS
Oystra
Mobile waste extraction and dewatering on a truck
Crane Engineering
https://blog.craneengineering.net/news
BMGF
0%
Prototype
3 Conveyance Tech - Extraction & Transportation LRS HRS
Vacuum Truck
Vacuum pumps and a tank mounted on a truck chassis or on a trailer pulled by a tractor. FS is pumped into the tank and transported to the treatment/disposal point
-
-
-
-
1
0
0
1
0
11%
Available
3 Conveyance Tech - Extraction & Transportation LRS HRS
Mobile Treatment Unit
MTU uses off-the-shelf separation technologies to produce a clean effluent quickly and cost-effectively. Treat and discharge septage onsite. Save time, fuel, and money.
Duke University
India
WASH Institute
https://www.washinstitute.org/
1
1
1
16%
Research / Prototype
3 Conveyance Tech - Extraction & Transportation LRS HRS
Powered Pumps
There are a wide variety of powered pumps (rotary vane, centrifugal, diaphragm, piston, etc). All move a fluid by reducing pressure on the intake side so that ambient pressure pushes the material to the pump. On the discharge side, the pump creates a pressure higher than ambient and pushing the fluid out.
-
-
-
-
1
1
0
1
0
16%
Available
3 Conveyance Tech - Extraction & Transportation LRS HRS
Motorized Emptying & Transport
Waste is removed using portable pumps or with a vacuum truck. The waste should then be trucked to a sanctioned dump site (sewer entry point, WTP, or composting facility) but more frequently the waste will be dumped into the environment.
-
-
-
-
1
1
1
1
1
26%
Available
3 Conveyance Tech - Network
Combined Sewer
These networks have storm drains that are connected to the sewerage such that rainfall is also directed to the treatment plant. Combined sewers have higher operating costs due to the larger volume of wastewater that has to be treated, and they may require larger treatment plants, as well. In addition, when it rains very hard, the treatment plant will not be able to keep up, which can result in untreated wastewater being dumped into the plant's outfall, which may be a river, lake or ocean. Approximately 800 cities in the U.S. have combined sewer systems that are designed to overflow in heavy rains leading to at least some raw sewage entering lakes and rivers.
-
-
-
-
0
0
0
0
0
0%
Available
3 Conveyance Tech - Network
Conventional Gravity Sewer
The baseline for modern conveyance methods. Sanitary sewers transport wastewater from homes and businesses. Gravity sewers require pipes be laid at slope of 0.5% to 1.0%. For a gravity system to work, sometimes a 10-foot-­diameter tunnel might have to be dug to a depth of 82 feet at the other end
-
-
-
-
0
0
0
0
0
0%
Available
3 Conveyance Tech - Network
Pressure Sewage
Pioneered in 1969 by Environment One Corporation (E/One, Niskayuna, N.Y.), ATS pressure sewers are found today in 42 countries and U.S. territories, and on almost every continent. E/One’s ATS begins with a grinder pump station, which has a tank about the size of a dishwasher that is buried in the ground, its lid easily camouflaged with minor landscaping. Inside, the primary component is a 1-hp, semi-positive displacement pump.The pump’s robust torque can propel wastewater through small-diameter, inflow-and-infiltration-free pressurized pipe buried just below the frost line for a distance of more than two miles — or even straight up 186 feet — to a force main or treatment plant. The total dynamic head provides a nearly identical flow rate regardless of the network’s contours and fluctuating elevations. Investment costs can be up to 50% compared to conventional sewerage. Blockages are more common.
Environment One Others
https://eone.com/sewer-systems
-
1
1
1
1
1
26%
Available
3 Conveyance Tech - Network
Simplified Sewer
Also called small-bore sewerage, is a sewer system that collects all household wastewater (blackwater and greywater) in small-diameter pipes laid at fairly flat gradients. It is suitable for existing unplanned low-income areas, as well as new housing estates with a regular layout. Investment costs can be up to 50% compared to conventional sewerage. Blockages are more common.
-
-
-
-
1
1
1
1
1
26%
Available
3 Conveyance Tech - Network
Solids-Free Sewer
Effluent sewer systems, also called septic tank effluent drainage (STED) or solids-free sewer (SFS) systems, have septic tanks that collect sewage from residences and businesses, and the effluent that comes out of the tank is sent to either a centralized sewage treatment plant or a distributed treatment system for further treatment. Most of the solids are removed by the septic tanks, so the treatment plant can be much smaller than a typical plant. In addition, because of the vast reduction in solid waste, a pumping system can be used to move the wastewater rather than a gravity system.
-
-
-
-
1
1
1
1
1
26%
Available

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